55.Case is an inflection or use of a noun (or pronoun) to show its relation to other words in the sentence.
In the sentence, “He sleeps in a felon’s cell,” the word felon’s modifies cell, and expresses a relation akin to possession; cell has another relation, helping to express the idea of place with the word in.
56.In the general wearing-away of inflections, the number of case forms has been greatly reduced.
Only two case forms.
There are now only two case forms of English nouns,—one for the nominative and objective, one for the possessive: consequently the matter of inflection is a very easy thing to handle in learning about cases.
Reasons for speaking of three casesof nouns.
But there are reasons why grammars treat of three cases of nouns when there are only two forms:—
(1) Because the relations of all words, whether inflected or not, must be understood for purposes of analysis.
(2) Because pronouns still have three case forms as well as three case relations.
I. Uses of the Nominative.
58.The nominative case is used as follows:—
(1) As the subject of a verb: “Water seeks its level.”
(2) As a predicate noun, completing a verb, and referring to or explaining the subject: “A bent twig makes a crooked tree.”
(3) In apposition with some other nominative word, adding to the meaning of that word: “The reaper Death with his sickle keen.”
(4) In direct address: “Lord Angus, thou hast lied!”
(5) With a participle in an absolute or independent phrase (there is some discussion whether this is a true nominative): “The work done, they returned to their homes.”
(6) With an infinitive in exclamations: “David to die!”
Pick out the nouns in the nominative case, and tell which use of the nominative each one has.
1. Moderate lamentation is the right of the dead; excessive grief, the enemy of the living.
Excuses are clothes which, when asked unawares,Good Breeding to naked Necessity spares.
3. Human experience is the great test of truth.
4. Cheerfulness and content are great beautifiers.
5. Three properties belong to wisdom,—nature, learning, and experience; three things characterize man,—person, fate, and merit.
But of all plagues, good Heaven, thy wrath can send,Save, save, oh save me from the candid friend!
8. They charged, sword in hand and visor down.
O sleep! O gentle sleep!Nature’s soft nurse, how have I frighted thee?
II. Uses of the Objective.
59.The objective case is used as follows:—
(1) As the direct object of a verb, naming the person or thing directly receiving the action of the verb: “Woodman, spare that tree!”
(2) As the indirect object of a verb, naming the person or thing indirectly affected by the action of the verb: “Give the devil his due.”
(3) Adverbially, defining the action of a verb by denoting time, measure, distance, etc. (in the older stages of the language, this took the regular accusative inflection): “Full fathom five thy father lies;” “Cowards die many times before their deaths.”
(4) As the second object, completing the verb, and thus becoming part of the predicate in acting upon an object: “Time makes the worst enemies friends;” “Thou makest the storm a calm.” In these sentences the real predicates are makes friends, taking the object enemies, and being equivalent to one verb, reconciles; andmakest a calm, taking the object storm, and meaning calmest. This is also called the predicate objective or the factitive object.
(5) As the object of a preposition, the word toward which the preposition points, and which it joins to another word: “He must have a long spoon that would eat with the devil.”
(6) In apposition with another objective: “The opinions of this junto were completely controlled by Nicholas Vedder, a patriarch of the village, and landlord of the inn.”
Point out the nouns in the objective case in these sentences, and tell which use each has:—
1. Tender men sometimes have strong wills.
2. Necessity is the certain connection between cause and effect.
3. Set a high price on your leisure moments; they are sands of precious gold.
4. But the flood came howling one day.
5. I found the urchin Cupid sleeping.
6. Five times every year he was to be exposed in the pillory.
7. The noblest mind the best contentment has.
8. Multitudes came every summer to visit that famous natural curiosity, the Great Stone Face.
And whirling plate, and forfeits paid,His winter task a pastime made.
He broke the ice on the streamlet’s brink,And gave the leper to eat and drink.
III. Uses of the Possessive.
60.The possessive case always modifies another word, expressed or understood. There are three forms of possessive showing how a word is related in sense to the modified word:—
(1) Appositional possessive, as in these expressions,—
The blind old man of Scio’s rocky isle.—Byron.
Beside a pumice isle in Baiæ’s bay.—Shelley.
In these sentences the phrases are equivalent to of the rocky isle [of] Scio, and in the bay [of] Baiæ, the possessive being really equivalent here to an appositional objective. It is a poetic expression, the equivalent phrase being used in prose.
(2) Objective possessive, as shown in the sentences,—
Ann Turner had taught her the secret before this last good lady had been hanged for Sir Thomas Overbury’s murder.—Hawthorne.
He passes to-day in building an air castle for to-morrow, or in writing yesterday’s elegy.—Thackeray
In these the possessives are equivalent to an objective after a verbal expression: as, for murdering Sir Thomas Overbury; an elegy to commemorate yesterday. For this reason the use of the possessive here is called objective.
(3) Subjective possessive, the most common of all; as,—
The unwearied sun, from day to day,Does his Creator’s power display.—Addison.
If this were expanded into the power which his Creator possesses, the word Creator would be the subject of the verb: hence it is called a subjective possessive.
61.This last-named possessive expresses a variety of relations. Possession in some sense is the most common. The kind of relation may usually be found by expanding the possessive into an equivalent phrase: for example, “Winter’s rude tempests are gathering now” (i.e., tempests that winter is likely to have); “His beard was of several days’ growth” (i.e., growth which several days had developed); “The forest’s leaping panther shall yield his spotted hide” (i.e., the panther which the forest hides); “Whoso sheddeth man’s blood” (blood that man possesses).
How the possessive is formed.
62.As said before (Sec. 56), there are only two case forms. One is the simple form of a word, expressing the relations of nominative and objective; the other is formed by adding ‘s to the simple form, making the possessive singular. To form the possessive plural, only the apostrophe is added if the plural nominative ends in -s; the ‘s is added if the plural nominative does not end in -s.
Declension or inflection of nouns.
63.The full declension of nouns is as follows:—
1. Nom. and Obj.
2. Nom. and Obj.
NOTE.—The difficulty that some students have in writing the possessive plural would be lessened if they would remember there are two steps to be taken:—
(1) Form the nominative plural according to Secs 39-53
(2) Follow the rule given in Sec. 62.
Special Remarks on the Possessive Case.
Origin of the possessive with its apostrophe.
64.In Old English a large number of words had in the genitive case singular the ending -es; in Middle English still more words took this ending: for example, in Chaucer, “From every schires ende,” “Full worthi was he in his lordes werre [war],” “at his beddes syde,” “mannes herte [heart],” etc.
A false theory.
By the end of the seventeenth century the present way of indicating the possessive had become general. The use of the apostrophe, however, was not then regarded as standing for the omitted vowel of the genitive (as lord’s for lordes): by a false theory the ending was thought to be a contraction of his, as schoolboys sometimes write, “George Jones his book.”
Use of the apostrophe.
Though this opinion was untrue, the apostrophe has proved a great convenience, since otherwise words with a plural in -s would have three forms alike. To the eye all the forms are now distinct, but to the ear all may be alike, and the connection must tell us what form is intended.
The use of the apostrophe in the plural also began in the seventeenth century, from thinking that s was not a possessive sign, and from a desire to have distinct forms.
Sometimes s is left out in the possessive singular.
65.Occasionally the s is dropped in the possessive singular if the word ends in a hissing sound and another hissing sound follows, but the apostrophe remains to mark the possessive; as, for goodness’ sake, Cervantes’ satirical work.
In other cases the s is seldom omitted. Notice these three examples from Thackeray’s writings: “Harry ran upstairs to hismistress’s apartment;” “A postscript is added, as by the countess’s command;” “I saw what the governess’s views were of the matter.”
66.In compound expressions, containing words in apposition, a word with a phrase, etc., the possessive sign is usually last, though instances are found with both appositional words marked.
Compare the following examples of literary usage:—
Do not the Miss Prys, my neighbors, know the amount of my income, the items of my son’s, Captain Scrapegrace’s, tailor’s bill—Thackeray.
The world’s pomp and power sits there on this hand: on that, stands up for God’s truth one man, the poor miner Hans Luther’s son.—Carlyle.
They invited me in the emperor their master’s name.—Swift.
I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter’s thick octavo volumes of notes on the “Paradise Lost.”—DE QUINCEY.
They will go to Sunday schools to teach classes of little children the age of Methuselah or the dimensions of Og the king of Bashan’sbedstead.—Holmes.
More common still is the practice of turning the possessive into an equivalent phrase; as, in the name of the emperor their master, instead of the emperor their master’s name.
Possessive and no noun limited.
67.The possessive is sometimes used without belonging to any noun in the sentence; some such word as house, store, church,dwelling, etc., being understood with it: for example,—
Here at the fruiterer’s the Madonna has a tabernacle of fresh laurel leaves.—Ruskin.
It is very common for people to say that they are disappointed in the first sight of St. Peter’s.—Lowell.
I remember him in his cradle at St. James’s.—Thackeray.
Kate saw that; and she walked off from the don’s.—De Quincey.
68.A peculiar form, a double possessive, has grown up and become a fixed idiom in modern English.
In most cases, a possessive relation was expressed in Old English by the inflection -es, corresponding to ‘s. The same relation was expressed in French by a phrase corresponding to of and its object. Both of these are now used side by side; sometimes they are used together, as one modifier, making a double possessive. For this there are several reasons:—
Its advantages: Euphony.
(1) When a word is modified by a, the, this, that, every, no, any, each, etc., and at the same time by a possessive noun, it is distasteful to place the possessive before the modified noun, and it would also alter the meaning: we place it after the modified noun with of.
(2) It is more emphatic than the simple possessive, especially when used with this or that, for it brings out the modified word in strong relief.
(3) It prevents ambiguity. For example, in such a sentence as, “This introduction of Atterbury’s has all these advantages” (Dr. Blair), the statement clearly means only one thing,—the introduction which Atterbury made. If, however, we use the phrase of Atterbury, the sentence might be understood as just explained, or it might mean this act of introducing Atterbury. (See also Sec. 87.)
The following are some instances of double possessives:—
This Hall of Tinville’s is dark, ill-lighted except where she stands.—Carlyle.
Those lectures of Lowell’s had a great influence with me, and I used to like whatever they bade me like.—Howells
Niebuhr remarks that no pointed sentences of Cæsar’s can have come down to us.—Froude.
Besides these famous books of Scott’s and Johnson’s, there is a copious “Life” by Thomas Sheridan.—Thackeray
Always afterwards on occasions of ceremony, he wore that quaint old French sword of the Commodore’s.—E. E. Hale.
(a) Pick out the possessive nouns, and tell whether each is appositional, objective, or subjective.
(b) Rewrite the sentence, turning the possessives into equivalent phrases.
1. I don’t choose a hornet’s nest about my ears.
2. Shall Rome stand under one man’s awe?
3. I must not see thee Osman’s bride.
At lovers’ perjuries,They say, Jove laughs.
5. The world has all its eyes on Cato’s son.
6. My quarrel and the English queen’s are one.
Now the bright morning star, day’s harbinger,Comes dancing from the East.
8. A man’s nature runs either to herbs or weeds; therefore, let him seasonably water the one, and destroy the other.
‘Tis all men’s office to speak patienceTo those that wring under the load of sorrow.
A jest’s prosperity lies in the earOf him that hears it, never in the tongueOf him that makes it.
11. No more the juice of Egypt’s grape shall moist his lip.
There Shakespeare’s self, with every garland crowned,Flew to those fairy climes his fancy sheen.
What supports me? dost thou ask?The conscience, Friend, to have lost them [his eyes] overpliedIn liberty’s defence.
Or where Campania’s plain forsaken lies,A weary waste expanding to the skies.
Nature herself, it seemed, would raiseA minster to her Maker’s praise!
HOW TO PARSE NOUNS.
69.Parsing a word is putting together all the facts about its form and its relations to other words in the sentence.
In parsing, some idioms—the double possessive, for example—do not come under regular grammatical rules, and are to be spoken of merely as idioms.
70.Hence, in parsing a noun, we state,—
(1) The class to which it belongs,—common, proper, etc.
(2) Whether a neuter or a gender noun; if the latter, which gender.
(3) Whether singular or plural number.
(4) Its office in the sentence, determining its case.
The correct method.
71.In parsing any word, the following method should always be followed: tell the facts about what the word does, then make the grammatical statements as to its class, inflections, and relations.
MODEL FOR PARSING.
“What is bolder than a miller’s neckcloth, which takes a thief by the throat every morning?”
Miller’s is a name applied to every individual of its class, hence it is a common noun; it is the name of a male being, hence it is a gender noun, masculine; it denotes only one person, therefore singular number; it expresses possession or ownership, and limits neckcloth, therefore possessive case.
Neckcloth, like miller’s, is a common class noun; it has no sex, therefore neuter; names one thing, therefore singular number; subject of the verb is understood, and therefore nominative case.
Thief is a common class noun; the connection shows a male is meant, therefore masculine gender; singular number; object of the verb takes, hence objective case.
Throat is neuter, of the same class and number as the word neckcloth; it is the object of the preposition by, hence it is objective case.
NOTE.—The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case (see Sec. 68).
Morning is like throat and neckcloth as to class, gender, and number; as to case, it expresses time, has no governing word, but is the adverbial objective.
Follow the model above in parsing all the nouns in the following sentences:—
1. To raise a monument to departed worth is to perpetuate virtue.
2. The greatest pleasure I know is to do a good action by stealth, and to have it found out by accident.
3. An old cloak makes a new jerkin; a withered serving man, a fresh tapster.
That in the captain’s but a choleric word,Which in the soldier is flat blasphemy.
5. Now, blessings light on him that first invented … sleep!
6. Necker, financial minister to Louis XVI., and his daughter, Madame de Staël, were natives of Geneva.
8. Time makes the worst enemies friends.
9. A few miles from this point, where the Rhone enters the lake, stands the famous Castle of Chillon, connected with the shore by a drawbridge,—palace, castle, and prison, all in one.
Wretches! ye loved her for her wealth,And hated her for her pride.
11. Mrs. Jarley’s back being towards him, the military gentleman shook his forefinger.